Sunday, May 24, 2020

A Thesis About Bodily Integrity - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2329 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/05/15 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Integrity Essay Did you like this example? Elizabeth Loeb explores bodily autonomy in the context of politics and U.S. laws in her article, Cutting it Off: Bodily Integrity, Identity Disorders, and the Sovereign Stakes of Corporeal Desire in U.S. Law. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Thesis About Bodily Integrity" essay for you Create order From this article, I have gathered that the U.S. government, legally, has the right to dictate what one can and cannot do with their bodies. Within Loebs analysis, she compares the different motions in which a trans person must go through to make their physical body match their identity versus a white cis woman requesting breast augmentation to fit patriarchal norms of beauty (Loeb, 47). One is subjected to years of psychiatric testing and strict regime, another is not, respectively. Then, she examines the ways in which government property incarcerated peoples or those in the military can commit acts of treason by forcibly modifying their bodies. Legally, these individuals are unauthorized to perform such tasks, and by doing so they would be charged with destruction of government property (Loeb, 49). Lastly, Loeb references abortion and the way that the possibility of another life is used as a tool of control against the pregnant. She also argues that U.S. justices continually justify their decision not in legal terms, but in physical ones, asserting again and again their ability to determine the terms of corporeal life (57). To have a corporeal life means to have a physical life similarly to habeas corpus, meaning you have a body. The irony in this is that habeas corpus is embedded within the U.S. constitution, but this undeniable right is manipulated to fit the con text of the matter. When Loeb brought up abortion, I began to think about the opposite of abortion and bodily integrity what if one used science and technology to create a life? Moreover, what if someone used that ?artificial life to cater to another being that lacks bodily integrity already? This led me to the 2004 novel, My Sisters Keeper, written by Jodi Picoult. The story follows 13-year old Anna Fitzgerald on her journey to sue her parents for medical emancipation after she discovers she was genetically engineered to save her old sister Kate, who is slowly dying from leukemia, and only she can provide the correct supplements. In short, Anna is a forced savior sibling. The English Oxford Dictionary defines a savior sibling as followed: a child conceived through selective in vitro fertilization to be a possible source of donor organs or cells for an existing brother or sister with a life-threatening medical condition. Due to the realization that she was created to save her dying sister, Anna decides that she wants to be more than just that. She sues her guardians for medical emancipation, so she does not have to provide bone marrow, blood transfusions, and most importantly, a kidney for Kate. Anna feels as though she has no freedom with her life and guiltily wishes Kate would die for this reason, despite her love for her sister. She explains that the donating never stops, and that she did not consent to it either. When told that obviously, youve agreed to be a donor for your sister before she replies with nobody ever asked (Picoult, 11). This exemplifies the slippery slope in which savior siblings find themselves in, where one donation leads to another, getting increasingly more invasive until the sibling is either cured or eventually dies. ARGUMENT The true story that inspired My Sisters Keeper took place in 2000. The Nash family from Colorado engineered the first savior sibling to gain national attention in which they successfully provided a cure for Fanconi anemia, a very rare but ultimately fatal illness (H? ¤yry, 7). Unable to find a bone marrow match for sickly six-year old Molly Nash, they used in-vitro fertilization to select an embryo without the Fanconi gene, which led to the birth of her younger brother Jack. From then on, their family was caught in a heated debate in which many criticized them for being selfish. Responses to the case consisted of: why would someone have a child just to place such expectations on them at a couple seconds old; this baby is not wanted as an addition to the family, but as a cure; and lastly, children are not spare body parts (Hendrickson). After uncovering the true story in which Picoults novel was loosely based off of, several questions came to mind. What conditions are serious enough to warrant these lengths from a parent? What counts as ?consent in these instances? What are the psychological and physical consequences of the savior sibling? Should parents have the right to offer their childrens lives in favor of another? Of my research, I contest that children must be taught bodily autonomy and consent from a young age. Although reactions to the situations that Anna Fitzgerald/Jack Nash found themselves in contrasted each other, I stand by my claim that a child should not be manipulated into believing someone elses life depends on theirs and should not be placed in such a position until they are able to fully understand the outcome. People have children for many different reasons. Anna Fitzgerald was medically engineered to provide what her sister lacked. This placed her in a precarious position within their familial hierarchy as well as retracting her ability to consent. Consent is usually given verbally through a yes or no. In Annas case, she was too young to express her consent, stating that the first time I gave something to my sister, it was cord blood, and I was a newborn (Picoult, 11). This set a precedent for every other medical procedure she would undergo throughout her life. No consent was asked, and because these procedures started from such a young age, she was socialized to believe it was normal. That was, until she was toldthat they chose little embryonic me, specifically, because I could save my sister, Kate (Picoult, 4). Ironically, Anna did not consent to being born, or being born for this specific reason. Because of this, Anna explains how she feels as though she is just as sick as Kate, becaus e she has just as little to no freedom in her life. Anna has a moral obligation to her sister that she struggles with going against but chooses to sue for medical emancipation out of disdain for the impending outcome as Kates health goes downhill. Janelle Mills points out that the language surrounding Annas donations further places her in a tight spot. Anna is in fact, not donating but forcibly and compulsory exchanging parts of her body to make up for what her sister lacks (Mills, 11). I wondered what the conditions were to become a donor in general, and found the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics, which are listed as follows from Bruce Crooks Defending the Donor: When at-Risk Siblings Cannot Consent: No other suitable alternate source of stem cells is available. Donor and recipient have a strong, positive relationship. Strong chance of beneficial result for recipient from donation. Clinical, psychological and emotional risks for the donor are minimized. Informed parental consent and donor assent (when possible) be obtained. As one can see, consent from the donor is not required because it is possible that consent cannot be verbally given. A newborn baby simply cannot consent to having blood taken from their umbilical cord to harvest stem cells. Does this mean the definition of consent should be modified or strictly defined in cases of savior siblings? Lacking a solid definition of consent can lead to damaging psychological effects on the donor in exchange for the health of the donee. One suggestion to prevent this would be to have frequent mental health checkups on both siblings involved and make it known that consent is retractable (Cordelia). It is important to note that instances that warrant savior siblings are not clearly defined. Life-threatening medical condition(s) are what the English Oxford Dictionary provides in their definition of a savior sibling, but there are no strict guidelines on what is necessary to consider the engineering of a savior sibling; there are only guidelines for who can be considered a donor. This opens up a plethora of situations in which a savior sibling could be viable, but not absolutely necessary. It also opens the doors for conversation about the convenient ever-changing definition of what consent is. Loeb mentions how definitions of consent change especially when newborn bodily mutilation/modification is at stake. Baby boys are subject to nonconsensual circumcision at birth for nothing other than looks (Loeb, 52). Circumcision is not healthier for the baby and it puts the child in extreme pain. Would taking blood from the umbilical cord of a newborn also be considered bodily mutilation? I am not a medical professional; therefore, I can do nothing but pose the question. It is important to make these comparisons, though, because the principal of the situations are similar. Studies have proven that one-third of children who have served as tissue donors for siblings developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosocial developmental issues (Mills, 11). Anxiety, depression, poor social relations, and low self-concept are just a few other psychological issues a savior sibling can often experience (Packman, 701). In addition to psychological ailments, savior siblings have to deal with physical pain despite being healthy. Bone marrow transplants cause deep bone pain and constantly giving blood leaves painful bruises. The procedures are both physically and mentally draining, and when coupled with the obligation that they are to save their sickly sibling heightens the psychological impact on a young and impressionable mind. Emotional rifts between siblings or even family have been proven to be a consequence of the savior sibling complex as well. It can produce feelings of inferiority towards the ailing sibling, feelings of unimportance, vulnerabilit y, and guilt due to the seriousness of responsibilities bestowed upon the donor (Mills, 30). Because of the conflicting morality of the situation, the donor may feel as though their life is disposable, or that their only purpose in life is to save their brother or sister. Anna Fitzgerald exemplifies this greatly and this is exactly what compels her to sue for medical emancipation from her parents. She struggles with coming to the decision out of love for her sister, but ultimately decides she can no longer withstand having control over her own bodily integrity. Anna asks herself, if you have a sister and she dies, do you stop saying you have one? Or are you always a sister, even when the other half of the equation is gone (Picoult, 72)? Her identity, literally, lies in Kates life. If Kate dies, her entire existence, she thinks, does not have any value. Being told that she was created to save her sister has obviously mentally coerced her into having a low self-concept, which Cordelia noted previously as an outcome of being the savior sibling. Anna had no one to advocate for h er rights, therefore she had to herself. By suing for medical emancipation, Anna is retracting her consent for the sake of discovering who she is. She is making a statement with her and her sisters health in mind one mentally, one physically, respectively. CONCLUSION Upon my findings, I still stand by my position that children must be taught bodily autonomy and consent from a young age. This will set the premise for how they govern themselves and conceptualize their rights as their own individual person. To understand savior siblings, one must understand that it is complex with emotional, physical, psychological, and ethical issues from both the donor and the donee. In this essay, however, I decided the focus on the implications of being the savior sibling rather than the one who needs saving. Returning to the Nash family from Colorado, Jack and Molly appear to have no qualms about their relationship, and in fact have stated that they believe it gives them a unique bond (Hendrickson). However, Picoults depiction of the savior sibling debate exposes the harsher side of things. Being a savior sibling has been proven to increase existential crises in the donor sibling as well as hinder their psychosocial skills later on in life. PTSD, anxiety, and d epression are common within the savior sibling as well. As harsh as it may sound, I believe that engineering another child in order to save a pre-existing one is immoral and unfair, especially to the donor sibling. Studies have proven there are more costs than benefits to creating a bond through savior siblings. If one does not teach their child about bodily autonomy and consent from a young age they will not be capable of adequately making judgements about their body later on in life. A childs body is absolutely theirs, and pressuring one who cannot fully understand the extent of a situation into consenting to the responsibility of keeping another person alive does more harm to the individual than it does good for the family. The use of a savior sibling should not be the first option in instances of life-threatening instances. As I have learned, there are many psychological, physical, and emotional ailments that come along with being dubbed the savior sibling like a moral contract to the ill brother or sister that leaves the donor feeling unwanted or less than. I personally believe that if a savior sibling is absolutely necessary i.e., there is already no cure or no pre-existing perfect match to create one the least invasive procedures should be performed until the child is legally allowed to consent and fully understand the stakes. Although Anna Fitzgeralds struggle is fictional, Jake and Molly Nashs were not; and even though Picoults novel is in direct contrast to the Nash familys everyday life, it details the legal, moral, and ethical fight to reclaim Annas bodily integrity and exposes the darker side of the savior sibling complex. Picoults novel should serve as a reminder that consent and bodily autonomy, especially in younger children, should be taught from a young age, and no childs life should be at the expense of anothers.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on Memorable Family Moments Caught by Photography

Memorable Family Moments Caught by Photography Family photographs have enabled me to develop a way to keep my family with me all the time, even when they are really not there. These pictures of my family represent a wide variety of importance and emotions in my life. Many of them serves as a link to my home life, since I am away at college without my family I allow their pictures to be decorations (memoirs) in my apartment. Some of them mean more than others, some are recent, and others come from my childhood. A picture I have framed on the center wall in my apartment is of my family on vacation this summer; it depicts our true selves and exemplifies how much we truly love one another. I am†¦show more content†¦These are usually the times where they snap pictures of their love ones to create memories of happy, quality times with one another, especially if these times are not easy to come across. On my family trips and on the family trips of others the idea of being united and having fun together is exemplified through th ese informal photographs we take. In an article by Judith Williamson called Family, Education, Photography, she discusses how with the informal arrives a new element, never so highly developed as in contemporary family photography: the necessity of fun(339). Families in turn can show the fun they have with one another in these pictures of their vacation and other informal, happy times with one another. Judith Williamsons article also has several other important viewpoints on family photography and how it has changed over the years. She states that in earlier family images it seemed enough for the family members to be presented to the camera, to be externally documented; but now this is not enough, and internal states of constant delight are to be revealed on film(339). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biological Effects on Hunger and Satiation Free Essays

There Is a theory called duel control theory that assumes that the feeling of hunger and satiation are controlled by two parts of the hypothalamus the lateral hypothalamus and the venturesome hypothalamus. It is stated that the venturesome hypothalamus Is triggered by an Increase In the glucose levels during eating, It then gives out the feeling of satiation (fullness) causing a person to stop eating. Whereas the decline In glucose level triggers the lateral hypothalamus which then gives out the feeling of hunger making the Individual want to eat. We will write a custom essay sample on Biological Effects on Hunger and Satiation or any similar topic only for you Order Now This theory Is backed by a study conducted by Withering and ransom (1942) who found that after creating lesions (damage) In a rats VIM they found that the rate become obese and overate, thus showing the rat sots its feeling of satiety and had no holds on how much to eat. Another study done by And and broke (1 951 ) showed that when the LA in rats was damaged or had a lesion it led to the loss of eating in the rat. The problem with these studies is that they are conducted on rats which begs the question are whether you can extrapolate the findings and generalist them on humans. Although they are found to have a similar gene structure to humans, we are still two very different species and humans are a far more complex organism, with mood, feelings etc. Also both the studies are very old which questions there reliability, with far less knowledge about the brain in 1950 the study could have been effected by other factors for example causing lesions in the VIM tends to also damage the parenthetical nucleus which is another area of the hypothalamus. Withering Ransom did not take this into account which has effectively caused a loss in the reliability of their study. Not only this but Gold (1973) found that lesions in the VIM alone did not cause hyperplasia and stated that t is likely that damage done to the parenthetical nuclease ( the area were Withering and ransom caused damage) helps to cause hyperplasia, but there is one problem with Gold study and its that it has never been replicated and research has been found that shows that lesions in the Vim does cause overeating. The duel control theory is a very reductionism theory as it assumes that the sole control of eating and feelings of hunger and satiety are biological and does not take Into inconsideration environmental and emotional factors on why people have such eating characteristics. It is also quite determinist In the way that it says the all control Is biological meaning we individually have no control In It and that Is Is programmed and that we have no say In the matter, which Is seen In everyday life to be Incorrect as you see people going through life changes who’s eating characteristics completely change. Another theory Is that gherkin (a hormone given off by the stomach) triggers he hypothalamus to stimulate the sensation of hunger. Cummings (et al) did a studios 6 participants and monitored there gherkin levels during after and before eating throughout the day. She found that people’s gherkin levels fell straight after rose and peaked at the feeling of hunger. She concluded that gherkin levels directly affected the level of hunger a person was feeling and reflected the emptiness of their stomach. The study was highly flawed as it had a lot of methodological issues. Firstly he study was carried out on 6 male participants meaning we cannot extrapolate the findings to the general public and only to men. Another problem is that it is a very artificial environment which could of effected the participants behavior and caused nervousness or anxiety which could have effected results as they were being monitored. Lastly the study is a correlation one meaning we can conclude cause and effect. However this story does coincide and supports findings from previous research on gherkin. How to cite Biological Effects on Hunger and Satiation, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Exam Three Study Guide free essay sample

Western Canada and Texas-New Mexico | | The three orogenies of the Devonian were: | c. Acadian, Antler, Ellesmere | | Cratonic Sequence 3 (Kaskaskia) can be identified by the presence of the basal: | b. Oriskany Sandstone in New York State | | The most useful criteria to distinguish deposits of Cratonic Sequence 3 (Kaskaskia) from Cratonic Sequence 2 (Tippecanoe) on the craton would include: | a. fossil assemblages | | | b. stratigraphic position | | Devonian reef complexes in western Canada are important because they: | a. are important hydrocarbon reservoirs | | | b. ormed barriers which resulted in potash rich evaporite deposits | | | c. are important paleoclimatic indicators | | Mississippian carbonate sequences are characterized by all but which of the following: | e. trilobites | | Cyclothems represent: | d. transgressive and regressive sequences | | The Ouachita system changed in terms of style of sedimentation from a passive margin to an active margin in the: | d. Early Missi ssippian | | At the end of the Permian, the suture between Gondwana and Laurasia was marked by a continuous moutain chain in which three mobile belts? | d. We will write a custom essay sample on Exam Three Study Guide or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ouachita, Appalachian, Hercynian | | Chapter 12amp;13 In which period were amphibians and seedless vascular plants most abundant? | b. Pennsylvanian | | Based on similarity of embryo development, which invertebrate phylum is most closely allied with the chordates? | a. Echinodermata | | The greatest recorded mass extinction on Earth occurred at the end of what period? | d. Permian | | The fossils of the Burgess Shale are significant because they provide a rare glimpse of: | b. the soft-part anatomy of extinct groups | | | c. soft-bodied animals | | What type of invertebrates dominated the Ordovician invertebrate community? d. epifaunal benthonic sessile suspension feeders | | The first organisms to construct reeflike structures were: | b. archaeocyathids | | Which of the following organisms is an example of an epifaunal benthonic suspension feeder? | d. articulate brachiopod | | The major organic-walled phytoplankton group of the Paleozoic Era was: | a. Acritarchs | | An exoskeleton is advantageous because it: | a. prevents drying out in an intertidal environment | | | b. provides protection against ultraviolet radiation | | | c. provides protection against predators | | | d. rovides attachment sites for development of strong muscles | | | | | Which plant group first successfully invaded land? | a. seedless vascular | | Ostracoderms are | a. jawless fish | | Labyrinthodonts are: | c. amphibians | | Which of the following fish groups was the first to evolve jaws? | c. acanthodians | | Amphibians evolved from which of the following groups? | e. lobe-finned fish | | Which algal group was the probable ancestor of vascular plants? | a. green | | The most significant evolutionary change that allowed reptiles to colonize all of the land was the evolution of: | d. n egg that contained a food-and-waste sac and surrounded the embryo in a fluid-filled sac | | Based on similarity of embryo development, which invertebrate phylum is most closely allied with the chordates? | d. Echinodermata | | The first plant group that did not require a wet area for part of its life cycle was the: | e. gymnosperms | | Which of the following must an organism possess during at least part of its life cycle, to be classified as a chordate? | e. notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, gill slits | | Which reptile group gave rise to the mammals? | e. herapsids | | Which of the following three groups of invertebrates comprised the majority of Cambrian skeletonized life? | e. trilobites, archaeocyathids, brachiopods | | The age of the Burgess Shale is: | b. Cambrian | | Which group of invertebrates are excellent guide fossils for the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods? | c. fusulinids | | Mass extinctions occurred at the end of which three periods? | a. Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian | | | c. Ordovician, Devonian, Permian | | Pelagic organisms are divided into which two main groups? | c. plankton, nekton | | Chapter 14 What is the evidence for the breakup of Pangaea? | a. rift valleys | | | b. dikes | | | c. great quantities of poorly sorted nonmarine detrital sandstones | | | d. sills | | | The first Mesozoic orogeny in the Cordilleran region was the: | | b. Nevadan | | | d. Sonoma | | The Mesozoic tectonic history of the North American Cordilleran region is very complex and involves: | a. oceanic-continent convergence | | | b. terrane accretion | | The formation or complex responsible for the spectacular scenery of the Painted Desert and Petrified Forest is the: | c. Chinle | | The Sierra Nevada, Southern California, Idaho, and Coast Range batholiths formed as a result of which orogeny? | d. Nevadan | | The first major seaway to flood North America was the: | d. Sundance | | The orogeny responsible for the present-day Rocky Mountains is the: | c. Laramide | | The Jurassic formation or complex famous for dinosaur fossils that Marietta Colleges dinosaur program is famous for digging in each summer and will be going to visit in Utah during May to collect more dinosaurs from is the: | a. Morrison | | The breakup of Pangaea began with initial Triassic rifting between which two continental landmasses? d. Laurasia and Gondwana | | The time of greatest post-Paleozoic inundation of the craton (by transgressive seas) occurred during which global period? | a. Cretaceous | | A possible cause for the eastward migration of igneous activity in the Cordilleran region during the Cretaceous was a change from: | b. high angle to low angle subduction | | The mountain building event that began in the Jurassic and continued into the Cenozoic (and is also named after the whole mobile belt on the western portions of North America) is called the: | a. Cordilleran Orogeny | | The three phases of the Cordilleran orogeny in order from oldest to youngest are: | d. Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide | | All but which of the following evolved during the Mesozoic? | b. reptiles | | During the Jurassic, the newly forming Gulf of Mexico was the site of primarily what type of deposition? | a. evaporites | | Which formation or group filled the Late Triassic fault-block basins of the east coast of North America with red nonmarine sandstones? | e. Newark | |

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Fertility Drugs Functions and Side Effects

For patients and medical practitioners alike, the sheer quest to surmount infertility is an obsessive one entailing not only a struggle on the physical dimension but also a struggle on the emotional and spiritual front.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Fertility Drugs: Functions and Side Effects specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each month without signs of pregnancy engineer another round of frustrating and emotive questions among couples, which soon develops into feelings of resentment, finger-pointing and blame-apportioning. Documented research demonstrates that these negative outcomes have, in more than one occasion, led to marriage breakups in the absence of proper intervention measures such as counseling or medical intervention (Cooper Glazer 38). Indeed, the panorama associated with conceiving, giving birth, and starting a family may be so momentous that it obliges couples, especially women, to cons ider every avenue of reinstating fertility, from the simplest to the most bizarre. Pushed to the limits, most individuals opt for fertility drugs. It is the purpose of this paper to critically evaluate the functions and side-effects of fertility-enhancing drugs with a view to demonstrate that their benefits outweigh social and health costs. Fertility drugs, also called ovulation-inducing drugs (OIDs), are medications that are mainly used to influence the biological process of ovulation. According to Ayhan et al., â€Å"ovulation-inducing drugs have been widely used for various types of infertility since the beginning of 1960s and their use increases day by day parallel to the success achieved in fertility treatment†[1] (1104). Al-Shawaf et al. asserts that the development and dissemination of OIDs generated the opportunity for a vast proportion of the unproductive population to create children (513). These drugs work by enhancing ovulation by arousing or stimulating the victi m’s brain to get an egg ready and discharge it from her ovaries every month (Pendzich para. 9). Some of the most commonly used fertility drugs include Clomiphene Citrate, Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin, Recombinant Gonadotrophin, Repronex, and Bromocriptine (Chavis para 3; Singer 45). One of the most basic uses of fertility drugs is to restore the reproductive capacities of infertile individuals. Clomiphene functions to achieve this purpose by stimulating the pituitary gland to generate adequate follicle-stimulating hormones, which are the hormones that are primarily responsible for triggering ovulation (Mix 89). The medication, taken in pill form daily, triggers the ovaries to prepare some eggs for ovulation.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immediately therapy is discontinued, the hypothalamus gland discharges a luteinizing hormone which responsively triggers t he ovaries to discharge a ready egg to the section where fertilization takes pace – the fallopian tubes. According to Pendzich, â€Å"†¦about 70 to 90 percent of women who take Clomiphene will ovulate, and of those who ovulate, 20 to 60 percent will get pregnant†[2] (para. 10). Another commonly used fertility drug is Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG). This drug, according to Pendzich, â€Å"†¦consists of purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)†¦Ã¢â‚¬  which occasions a woman to develop egg follicles after being injected with the drug (para. 11). Immediately after completion of the injections, the woman is then injected with another hormone named human chorionic gonadotropin, which functions to arouse the ovaries to discharge the mature eggs that ostensibly develops after weeks of receiving hMG. This drug is normally given to estrogen-deficient women or those who fail to respond to first-line treatment drugs such as Clomiphene. According to Pendzi ch, â€Å"†¦the rate of multiple births [for women using the drug] is close to 20 percent†¦About 70 to 90 percent of women who take hGM will ovulate, and of those who ovulate, 20 to 60 percent will get pregnant†[3] (para. 11). Lastly, this paper will discuss Bromocriptine – a fertility-enhancing drug that can either be taken orally or applied as a vaginal gel (Pendzich para. 12; Mix 92). The drug has the potent efficacy of inhibiting the pituitary’s production and release of prolactin, a hormone that is closely associated with reduced estrogen levels, hence inhibiting ovulation. This way, the ovaries are given the opportunity to produce the desired eggs. Available statistics suggests that â€Å"†¦90 percent of the women who take Bromocriptine will ovulate as long as they continue taking the drug†¦Of the women who ovulate, 65 to 85 percent will get pregnant†[4] (Pendzich para. 12).Advertising We will write a custom research paper s ample on Fertility Drugs: Functions and Side Effects specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having discussed how various fertility drugs functions, it is imperative to note at this stage that many of these drugs compliment each other in the quest to restore fertility, and no single drug has ever proven to be the wonder drug (Jensen et al 132). As such, personalized leads may have to be pursued from all likely angles, and personalized problem-solving approaches may have to be attempted again and again before an appropriate diagnosis is achieved, reproductive health restored, and a tangible pregnancy attained (Cooper Glazer 23). The side-effects of fertility drugs range from mild to serious, and sometimes, life-threatening. It is the object of this paper to divide the side-effects into two – mild and serious – for purposes of evaluating possible social and health costs. According to Al-Shawaj et al., some of the mild side-effec ts occasioned by fertility drugs include: mood swings, headaches, abdominal tenderness, dizziness, dry cervical mucus, simple cyst development, weight gain, mild ovarian enlargement, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, menopausal problems, allergic reactions, ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome, immune reaction, and low blood pressure (515-523). Parazzini et al argues that these side-effects are drug-specific, and some side-effects caused by specific drugs are more serious than others (1373). This argument reinforces the fact that the operational mode of fertility-enhancing drugs is interestingly divergent, thus the need for individualized attention (â€Å"The Need For† para. 1). The above notwithstanding, fertility drugs have the capacity to occasion life-threatening side-effects. Although it has never been authentically proved, scientists and medical practitioners believe there is a close correlation between fertility-enhancing drugs and ovarian cancer (Parazzini et al 1372). Ac cording to Al-Shawaj et al., â€Å"†¦ovarian cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy, the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the U.S.†[5] (518).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fertility inducing agents have also been closely associated with breast cancer – the most common cancer affecting women globally. Indeed, concerns have been raised that women with an ovulatory infertility are at increased risk of suffering from breast cancer, but scientists are yet to offer concrete evidence linking breast cancer to fertility drugs (Al-Shawaj et al 519). Other seminal studies have also demonstrated that infertile women, in general, bears no excess risk of suffering from breast cancer compared with their fertile counterparts in the general population (Venn et al 1574). In equal measure, the risk of cancerous tumors in children conceived following the use of fertility medications has been reassuringly low as found out in a recent cohort study involving Danish women (Jensen et al 134). Taking the above into consideration, it can safely be argued that many of the perceived serious consequences ostensibly caused by fertility drugs so far remains a specter of imagi nation for lack of adequate substantiation. It is indeed true that ovulation-stimulating drugs increases the rate of pregnancy loss (Singer 102), not mentioning the fact that they also increase the chances of conceiving multiple pregnancies and autism spectrum disorder (Keller para. 1). These risks, however, cannot be equated with the joy of having children, the method of conceiving notwithstanding. Fertility drugs, just like other prescriptions, are used to treat a medical condition that affects and distresses one in six couples[6] – infertility. The therapy of these drugs carries complications and impediments as does any other medical therapy and it needs to be scrutinized and evaluated in this broad perspective. As such, it is prudent to postulate that fertility drugs are useful since their benefits far outweigh the perceived risks. End Notes Ayhan, A., Salman, M.C., Celik, H., Dursun, P., Ozyungu, O., Gulteknm, M. Association between Fertility Drugs and Gynecological C ancers, Breast Cancer, and Childhood Cancers. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Sc and Inavica 83.12 (2004): 1104-1111 Pendzich, M. Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it? 2008 Pendzich 2008 Pendzich 2008 Al-Shawaj, T., Zosmer, A., Dirnfeld, M., Grudzinskas, G. Safety of Drugs Used in Assisted Reproduction Techniques. Drug Safety 28.6 (2005): 513-528 Al-Shawaj et al 2005 Works Cited Al-Shawaj, T., Zosmer, A., Dirnfeld, M., Grudzinskas, G. Safety of Drugs Used in Assisted Reproduction Techniques. Drug Safety 28.6 (2005): 513-528. Ayhan, A., Salman, M.C., Celik, H., Dursun, P., Ozyungu, O., Gulteknm, M. Association between Fertility Drugs and Gynecological Cancers, Breast Cancer, and Childhood Cancers. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Sc and Inavica 83.12 (2004): 1104-1111. Chavis, J. Types of Fertility Drugs. 2010. Web. Cooper, S.L., Glazer, E.S. (1994). Beyond Infertility: The New Paths to Parenthood. London: Lexington Books. Jensen, A., Sharif, H., Svare, E.I., Frederiksen, K., K jaer, S.K. Risk of Breast Cancer after Exposure to Fertility Drugs: Results from a Large Danish Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers Prevention 16.3 (2007): 132-145. Keller, D.M. Study suggests Infertility and Use of Fertility Drugs Increases Risk for Autism. Web. Mix, T. The Price of Ovulation. The Truth about Fertility Drugs and Birth Defects and a Solution to the Problem. Boston, MA: Tendrill Press. 2005. Parazzini, F., Pelucchi, C., Negri, E., Francesclus, S., Talamini, R., Mentella, M., Vechia, C.L. Use of Fertility Drugs and Risk of Ovarian Cancer. Human Reproduction 16.7 (2001): 1372-1375. Pendzich, M. Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it? 2008. Web. Singer, K. The Garden of Fertility: A Guide to Charting your Fertility Signals to Prevent or Achieve Pregnancy – Naturally – and to Gauge your Reproductive Health. New York: Penguin Books. The need for an Individualized Approach to COH. (n.d.). Web. Venn, A., Watson, L., Bruinsmi, F., Giles, G., Healy, D. Risk of Cancer after use of Fertility Drugs with In-Vitro Fertilization. Lancet 6.354 (1999): 1573-1584. This research paper on Fertility Drugs: Functions and Side Effects was written and submitted by user Jordan Jefferson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Opening scene of Hamlet Essay Example

Opening scene of Hamlet Essay Example Opening scene of Hamlet Paper Opening scene of Hamlet Paper The audience observes the opening scene of Hamlet, where they see a man standing guard (Francisco) on the platform of the castle known as Elsinorea, at the dead of night. In films, this place is often depicted, as very high up on the walls of the castle, over looking the dark sea. This would portray quite a somber and haunting theme. Throughout the opening scene, Shakespeare is constantly addressing his audience, in the form of questioning, through his characters. Even, the very first words, uttered in this scene is presented to the audience as a question whos there? This portrays the character (in this case Barnardo) as fearful, since he is in the presence of something unknown. This is Shakespeares attempt, to capture his audiences interest. He does this, by trying to get his audience to show empathy toward Barnardo, making them also worried and fearful of the unknown, which makes the audience want to find out the answer to this rhetorical question, that they have been presented with by Barnardo. Then the audience is allowed to find relief which they would have much thanks for (since they are now able to name this unknown presence as Francisco.) The audience is then easily silenced, when they are presented with another question Have you had quiet guard? making them worry yet again, if there could be another cause for concern. And also creating an atmosphere of tension and mystery, while at the same time leaving the audience in suspense. On the battlements of Elsinore. Tis now twelve and Barnardo has suggested to Francisco that he should Get himself to bed, since Tis bitter cold, and Francisco is sick at heart. Obviously the audience is given the impression, that this scene is set late a night. Also at that point in time, the battlements of Elsinore wasnt exactly the nicest place to be. There are two significant periods within this scene, which have a common factor the ghost (i. e. the theme of the super natural). Within the first period, Francisco speaking for the first time Nay, answer me. Stand and unfold yourself. The idea that it might be the ghost terrifies him, so in demanding to know who he is in the presence of allows him to put his worries at ease, once he as been answered. Followed by the second period, where Horatio sees the ghost for the first time Horatio. He is full of fear but at the same time wonder; at this point the audience would be sharing Horatios inquisitive, yet scared mannerism. The reader must remember that the Elizabethans were very superstitious and took matters of the super natural very seriously. Ghost were normal seen as representatives for good (as opposed to witches who were believed to be sent by the devil). Which is rather ironic, since Shakespeare does not establish whether or not the ghost is good or evil until later on in the play. This may have been done to get the audiences attention, making them want to know the purpose of this apparition (more that they would have if the answer had just been simple given to them). The dialogue in this scene is rather shot, suggesting tension. The two significant events contain the main sources of tension. The fact that there are long pauses and the language is not very descriptive also shows tension. Marcellus speaks of peace, break thee off, which suggests a rather rhythmic repetition of a beating drum (acting as an indication to war). When Horatio is first introduced to the audience only a piece of him is there. Physically he is there but mentally is somewhere else (i. e. half-asleep). Horatio is simply enduing Marcellus and Barnardo. He is quite the skeptic and believes tis only but our fantasy. So Horatio is rather a doubting Tom. The audience would be amused by the fact that his attitude is the complete opposite of the others. Also this is an interval between the two events, which just the presence of the super natural since texts becomes more descriptive and there are longer sentences. This would also imply that the was less tension thanks to Horatios disbelief and the greeting of friends. The ironically Horatios attitude drastically changes confronted the ghost, he can not believe that he had see it of mine own eyes. He also refers to the ghost as a thing simply because it is not quite explainable what this thing really is. The apparition has two nights been seen. By this point the audience would be very curious and would be very interested to see the out some of this scene. Before seeing the ghost Horatio believed that twill not appear, the audience wouldnt be able to comprehend whether the ghost was truth or illusion, heightening the suspense and making the audience eager to find out. Bernado sits down to explain what they had seen. The atmosphere would be calmer and the audience curious. When the ghost appeared, the audience would have been anxious and nervous. It is made clear to the audience that the apparition has taken on a figure like the king thats dead, giving the impression that the deceased king had unfinished business (i.e. the matter of revenge to deal with). After seeing the ghost, the audience would now believe what the soldiers had told Horatio. Horatios reaction proves that the ghost is not fantasy. The soldiers continue to talk about how the ghost looked like the king and how it was even dressed in his armor. This whole idea tis strange. This begins an air of mystery and worry to the scene. The fact that the ghost is wearing armor may be some sort of indication that it has come to wage war against Denmark. This bodes a strange eruption to our state. This introduces the time theme of corruption (i. e. think of evil erupting like a volcano. ) The audience at this time believed in the divine right of kings, seeing the Sovereign as central to the affairs of the nation. They would be wondering what had gone morally wrong for the king to return. The second part of the scene appeals more to the intellect that to the emotions. The audience would be keen and interested to be told why the soldiers were on duty constantly. They are told why Fortinbras is meaning to attack and filled in on historical facts, which will be important to their understanding of the play later. When Horatio begins to talk about what happened before Julius Caesar was killed. The audience would start to wonder whether the ghosts appearance in Denmark would have the same effect. * He states that all of these things were a bad omen suggesting that the ghosts appearance is a bad omen. The audience would therefore be interested to know if something like this happened in Denmark. At this point the tension increases and the audience would be on the edge of their seats watching the guards cross themselves for protection. As the ghost spreads its arms they would be straining to listen and hear what it had to say. Each time Horatio Asked it to speck what art thou, they would be willing it to reveal why it was there. As the cock crows action occurs as the soldiers try to strike the ghost, The audience would be full of astonishment by the fact that the ghost is really. Horatio then tries to restrain the ghost from leaving by striking it, still, it vanishes. Marcellus thinks that they have committed a grievous error in striking the ghost of the late king. The ghost had started like a guilty thing/Upon a fearful summons. Horatio recalls that traditionally the crowing of the cock was believed to awake the good of day and serve as a warning to all preternatural and erring spirits that the time has come to return to their confines. As dawn breaks, Horatio and the two officers decide to share the events of the night with prince hamlet, the late kings son. Now the audience would be thinking that the apparition was definitely evil. This scene ends on a hopeful note with the coming of the light the audience would have new hope that the ghost will speck to hamlet. They would be eager to find out his reactions. This scene ends on a note of suspense and mystery. This scene is full of devices to arouse the interest and silence a noisy audience. Tension, suspense and mystery are created through language and actions of the soldiers as they wait and confront the king s ghost on the castle battlements at Elsinore.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Company Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 2

Company Law - Essay Example The most appropriate remedy that Quincy should avail is the second remedy of applying for an order from the court on the ground that the company's affairs are being conducted in a manner which is 'unfairly prejudicial' under Part 30 CA 206, ss 994-998 because this remedy allows Roar to continue its business. CA 2006 (s 994) gives Quincy very flexible solutions to disagreements within Roar without having to necessarily wind up the company under the first remedy. Specifically, s 994(1) CA 2006 provides as follows: "A member of a company may apply to the court by petition for an order under this Part on the ground - (a) that the company's affairs are being or have been conducted in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to the interests of members generally or of some part of its members (including at least himself), or (b) that an actual or proposed act or omission of the company (including an act or omission on its behalf) is or would be so prejudicial. The 'Act or omission' under this Section can include either an isolated act or omission or a continuing situation, depending on the circumstances. In fact, in Re Norvabron Pty Ltd (No 2) (1986) 11 ACLR 33, this can even include an act which took place before the petitioner became a shareholder. Furthermore, the legal import of the term 'C onduct of the company's affairs' has been considered in Re Legal Costs Negotiators Ltd (1999) 2 BCLC 171 CA wherein there were originally four individuals who set up a company, each was a director and employee and each had an equal amount of shares. When the relationship with one person broke down, he was dismissed subsequently as an employee although he resigned as a director just before he was removed. Nonetheless, he remained a shareholder although he refused to sell his shares to the other three. When the majority petitioned under s 459 CA 2006 for an order that he should transfer his shares to them, the petition was rejected because of the distinction between this remedy and personal actions, i.e. in this statutory remedy, what is relevant to consider is the 'company's affairs'. In the given situation, the following facts clearly indicate that the company's affairs are being or have been conducted by Patrick and Sally in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to the interests of Quincy, a minority; and an actual act of the company (including an act or omission on its behalf) is so prejudicial to Quincy: Patrick and Sally have remove Quincy as a director; Patrick and Sally take out any profit from the business as director's salaries; and they also decide to change the nature of the business which by the Articles of Association requires a 75% majority. In fact, the 75% requirement in amending the Articles of Incorporation was not met because Patrick and Sally only owned at least 70% of the shares. Moreover, Patrick and Sally appropriated several valuable contracts to Sally's company, Tiddles Limited (Tiddles) which would normally have gone to Roar in order to make sure that no benefit will come to Quincy from these contracts. Clearly, these events and the facts taken together not only constitute a basis to grant an application for an order based on the ground that the company'